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Acid/Base Homeostasis

Interactive Physiology® Quiz: Acid/Base Homeostasis

This activity contains 126 questions.

Question 1
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Question 2
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Question 3
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All acids and bases in the body come from the consumption of food and beverages.

   
 
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Question 4
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Increased acidity of body fluids would occur
 
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Question 5
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A solution with a pH of 8 has 10 times less hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 10.

   
 
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Question 6
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Which statement is CORRECT?
 
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Question 7
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When a solution's pH is increased or decreased by 1.0 the concentration of hydrogen ions changes by a factor of
 
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Question 8
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A solution with a pH of 3 has _____ times as many hydrogen ions as a solution with a pH of 6.
 
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Question 9
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Question 10
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The normal pH range of arterial blood fluctuates between 7.0 and 7.5.

   
 
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Question 11
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Which of the following is the most acidic compartment?
 
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Question 12
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Which statement is INCORRECT?
 
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Question 13
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The pH of urine varies to a greater extent than the pH of blood.

   
 
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Question 14
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Predict which pH is associated with the stomach before eating a meal.
 
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Question 15
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Which statement is CORRECT?
 
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Question 16
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Which organ is associated with the most acidic environment?
 
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Question 17
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Question 18
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Carbonic acid is formed by bubbling carbon dioxide through water.

   
 
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Question 19
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Hydrochloric acid is one of many strong acids in the body.

   
 
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Question 20
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When a hydrochloric acid molecule is mixed with water, it completely dissociates into hydrogen and chloride ions.

   
 
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Question 21
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In solution, carbonic acid dissociates more readily than the lactic acid.

   
 
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Question 22
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All of the following statements are correct EXCEPT:
 
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Question 23
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When the body is in acid/base homeostasis
 
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Question 24
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Which molecule is the strongest acid?
 
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Question 25
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When placed in an equal volume of water, which acid solution would have the lowest pH?
 
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Question 26
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Only weak bases are found in the body.

   
 
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Question 27
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Which molecule is considered a weak base?
 
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Question 28
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When placed in solution, a small percentage of bicarbonate molecules will
 
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Question 29
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Carbonic acid and a hydroxide ion combine to form
 
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Question 30
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A solution that is neutral would have
 
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Question 31
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Match each of the following to its correct answer.

Using the pull-down menus, match each item in the left column to the corresponding item in the right column.
A Lactic acid
B Bicarbonate ion
C Not found in the body
D Hydrochloric acid
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Question 32
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There is no electrolyte in plasma that functions as a weak acid or base.

   
 
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Question 33
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Which molecule found in the plasma can act as a weak acid?
 
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Question 34
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Question 35
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The amino acid side chains responsible for a protein's charge are NH3+ and COO-.

   
 
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Question 36
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Maintaining the pH of body fluids is very important because protein can only function at specific pHs.

   
 
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Question 37
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Globular protein
 
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Question 38
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If the pH of a cell's cytoplasm shifts from 7 to 8, an enzyme will
 
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Question 39
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Proteins
 
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Question 40
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Predict what will happen when lactic acid accumulates in the cytoplasm of a muscle cell.
 
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Question 41
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Which molecule will cease functioning if the pH of a solution is altered?
 
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Question 42
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Question 43
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When an acid is added to distilled water, the pH increases significantly.

   
 
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Question 44
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All of the following are examples of the body's buffering systems EXCEPT:
 
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Question 45
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Most chemical buffers are composed of
 
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Question 46
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Which of the following is NOT a biological buffering system?
 
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Question 47
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Carbonic acid/bicarbonate is an example of a conjugate acid/base pair.

   
 
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Question 48
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Which molecule is a weak base?
 
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Question 49
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When an acid is added to a buffered solution, the pH of the solution
 
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Question 50
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Which molecule is a weak base?
 
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Question 51
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When there are small amounts of excess hydrogen ions in the body, proteins
 
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Question 52
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Question 53
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Question 54
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A chemical reaction that occurs in either direction is indicated by the presence of double arrows.

   
 
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Question 55
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Which statement is CORRECT?
 
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Question 56
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Within body fluids, carbon dioxide and water chemically combine to produce lactic acid.

   
 
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Question 57
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If breathing rate slows, the reaction CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H++ HCO3-, will shift to the left.

   
 
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Question 58
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The enzyme carbonic anhydrase rapidly combines carbon dioxide with water to form carbonic acid.

   
 
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Question 59
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Which compensation system is the most rapid?
 
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Question 60
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Carbonic acid is formed
 
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Question 61
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The body's principle source of carbon dioxide is
 
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Question 62
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The reaction CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3- occurs rapidly
 
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Question 63
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Carbonic acid is a volatile acid because it can be converted to carbon dioxide gas.

   
 
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Question 64
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A rapid respiration rate at rest will result in respiratory alkalosis.

   
 
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Question 65
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Hypoventilation will result in
 
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Question 66
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Hyperventilation will result in
 
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Question 67
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Which statement is CORRECT?
 
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Question 68
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Renal tubules selectively reabsorb and secrete acids and bases in order to regulate plasma pH.

   
 
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Question 69
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All of the following molecules are regulated by the renal tubules in order to fine-tune the plasma pH EXCEPT:
 
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Question 70
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Which of the following is the FINAL step in renal control of alkalosis?
 
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Question 71
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If plasma pH is lower than normal
 
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Question 72
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A fixed acid is eliminated from the body
 
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Question 73
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The tubule cells of the kidney regulates the pH of body fluids by
 
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Question 74
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During respiratory acidosis, intercalated cells in the collecting duct will respond by returning bicarbonate ions to the plasma while secreting hydrogen ion into the filtrate.

   
 
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Question 75
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The most important renal filtrate buffer is the bicarbonate ion.

   
 
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Question 76
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Carbon dioxide arrives at the kidney's proximal convoluted tubule by all of the following routes EXCEPT:
 
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Question 77
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Respiratory acidosis
 
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Question 78
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Renal control of acidosis results in all of the following EXCEPT:
 
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Question 79
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Within the tubule filtrate, where is the concentration of the bicarbonate ion the highest?
 
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Question 80
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The following are the steps that occur in the proximal convoluted tubule cell during respiratory acidosis. Place them in sequential order beginning with #1 and ending with #10.

1. Respiratory rate decreases or exchange of gases in the lungs is impaired.
2. Carbonic acid splits into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate.
3. Carbon dioxide enters the cell.
4. Carbon dioxide, not bicarbonate, moves back into the cell.
5. Carbon dioxide and water combine and form carbonic acid.
6. Plasma levels of carbon dioxide increase.
7. Hydrogen ion moves into the filtrate while sodium enters the cell.
8. In the filtrate, hydrogen ion combines with bicarbonate.
9. Carbonic anhydrase on the brush border splits carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water.
10. Bicarbonate and sodium are reabsorbed into the plasma.
 
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Question 81
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The following are the steps that occur in the distal convoluted tubule cell during respiratory acidosis. Place them in sequential order beginning with #1 and ending with #10.

1. Respiratory rate decreases or exchange of gases in the lungs is impaired.
2. Carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbonic acid.
3. Hydrogen ion is transported into the filtrate against its concentration gradient.
4. Carbon dioxide arrives at the late DCT cell and cortical collecting duct cells.
5. Hydrogen ion binds to hydrogen phosphate in the filtrate.
6. Carbon dioxide enters the cell.
7. Carbonic acid splits into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate.
8. Hydrogen diphosphate enters the collecting duct.
9. Plasma levels of carbon dioxide increase.
10. Newly formed bicarbonate leaves the cell and enters the plasma and chloride enters the cell.
 
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Question 82
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Question 83
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Ammonium ion is formed
 
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Question 84
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Predict which of the following occur during severe acidosis.
 
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Question 85
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Renal control of acidosis include all of the following EXCEPT:
 
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Question 86
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Which molecule functions as a plasma buffer?
 
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Question 87
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Match each statement to its correct answer.

Using the pull-down menus, match each item in the left column to the corresponding item in the right column.
A If the rate of respiration increases, the plasma pH ___________.
B The concentration of plasma hydrogen ions _____________ when they are secreted.
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Question 88
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Match each statement to its correct answer.

Using the pull-down menus, match each item in the left column to the corresponding item in the right column.
A The volatile acid, carbonic acid, is eliminated from the body as carbon dioxide.
B These act within seconds to correct abnormal body fluids pH.
C These are important in compensating for respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
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Question 89
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Which statement about acidosis is CORRECT?
 
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Question 90
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Plasma proteins
 
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Question 91
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All acids and bases in the body come from the consumption of food and beverages.

   
 
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Question 92
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Chemical buffers work
 
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Question 93
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Which statement is INCORRECT?
 
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Question 94
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Metabolic alkalosis may result when there is excessive diarrhea or vomiting.

   
 
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Question 95
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All of the following statements about metabolic acidosis are correct EXCEPT:
 
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Question 96
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Which of the following would NOT result in metabolic acidosis?
 
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Question 97
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When blood pH reaches approximately 6.9, brainstem dysfunction occurs resulting in death.

   
 
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Question 98
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Symptoms of ketoacidosis, due to type I diabetes, include
 
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Question 99
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Symptom(s) of metabolic acidosis include
 
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Question 100
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The systemic effects of ketoacidosis
 
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Question 101
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Question 102
102
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Question 103
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Which statement is CORRECT?
 
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Question 104
104
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Which organ produces insulin?
 
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Question 105
105
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Predict what will happen to blood pH during ketoacidosis.
 
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Question 106
106
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Question 107
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Only the respiratory system is involved in compensatory mechanisms to correct metabolic acidosis.

   
 
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Question 108
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Which statement is INCORRECT?
 
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Question 109
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Determine the correct sequence of primary compensatory steps used to correct metabolic acidosis.

1. The carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system is activated.
2. Hyperventilation occurs
3. Increased carbon dioxide levels result in activation of respiratory centers in the brain and large arteries
4. Plasma levels of bicarbonate ions decrease while carbon dioxide levels increase.
5. Excess hydrogen ion combines with plasma bicarbonate.
6. Excess carbonic acid, in the form of carbon dioxide and water, are exhaled.
 
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Question 110
110
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Question 111
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All of the following will lead to metabolic alkalosis EXCEPT:
 
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Question 112
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Which symptom(s) is/are associated with metabolic alkalosis?
 
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Question 113
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Death will occur
 
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Question 114
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Which statement is CORRECT?
 
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Question 115
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Which fluid contains the only strong acid in the body?
 
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Question 116
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All of the following situations may result in respiratory acidosis EXCEPT:
 
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Question 117
117
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Match each statement to its correct answer.

Using the pull-down menus, match each item in the left column to the corresponding item in the right column.
A Hypokalemia will result in this condition.
B Symptoms of this condition include headache, blurred vision, dizziness, and lethargy.
C Symptoms included increased sweating as well as numbness and tingling in the fingers and around the mouth.
D Excess potassium ions in the extracellular fluids contribute to this condition.
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Question 118
118
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Question 119
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The blood pH of a person with emphysema would be less than normal.

   
 
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Question 120
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Individuals with early stages of emphysema ignore the many symptoms that are associated with the disease.

   
 
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Question 121
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Neurological symptoms of respiratory acidosis are often more severe than respiratory alkalosis because, unlike metabolic acids, carbon dioxide can cross the blood brain barrier.

   
 
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Question 122
122
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Symptoms of respiratory acidosis resulting from emphysema are
 
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Question 123
123
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Which statement about emphysema is INCORRECT?
 
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Question 124
124
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How does the body compensate for respiratory acidosis?
 
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Question 125
125
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Respiratory alkalosis may
 
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Question 126
126
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Which of the following would be observed in simple, uncompensated respiratory alkalosis?
 
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