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This activity contains 25 questions.
Research shows that __________ genes lie along the human chromosomes.
2,000,000 to 2,500,000
2,000 to 2,500
23 pairs of
20,000 to 25,000
The DNA of humans and chimpanzees is between __________ percent identical.
75 and 80
98 and 99
20 and 25
50 and 55
__________ are the sex cells, and contain __________ chromosomes.
Gametes; 23 pairs of
Autosomes, 23 pairs of
The exchange of chromosome segments during meiosis results in
higher rates of fraternal twins for women with X-linked disorders.
the production of more female zygotes than male zygotes.
incredible variability among siblings.
reduced adaptive abilities in some species.
The sex of a baby is determined by
genes on the X chromosome.
whether the sperm fertilizes an X-bearing or Y-bearing egg.
whether an X-bearing or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum.
whether the ovum is carrying an X chromosome or a Y chromosome.
A person whose 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY
cannot be a fraternal twin.
has Down syndrome.
The case of PKU demonstrates that
serious inherited disorders are more often due to dominant than to recessive genes.
changes in the environment can alter the extent to which an inherited disorder influences a person's well-being.
even if we know the genetic makeup of the parents, it is difficult to predict the likelihood that children in a family will display a disorder.
most inherited disabilities and disorders are untreatable.
Which of the following is supported by research dominant and recessive diseases?
For a child to inherit a recessive disorder, only one parent must have the recessive allele.
Only rarely are serious diseases due to dominant alleles.
In codominance patterns, the recessive allele has no effect on the individual's characteristics.
Males are more likely than females to inherit recessive disorders carried on the autosomes.
Studies of mutation demonstrate that
mutations affect only one gene.
fathers who are exposed to ionizing forms of radiation in their occupation are not at increased risk for producing babies with genetic abnormalities.
exposure to nonionizing forms of radiation, such as microwaves, can cause genetic damage.
some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance.
shows that each of us has a single, permanent genotype.
is not involved in disorders that run in families.
increases with age.
takes place when the defective DNA is passed on to the next generation.
Most children born with sex chromosome abnormalities
rarely survive beyond early childhood.
are more aggressive and antisocial than their agemates.
have mental retardation.
appear normal until adolescence.
Research on sex chromosome disorders show that
verbal difficulties are common among females who are missing an X chromosome.
males with XYY syndrome are more aggressive and antisocial than are XY males.
most children with these disorders suffer from mental retardation.
females with a missing X chromosome often have trouble with spatial relationships.
In vitro procedures
cannot help postmenopausal women become pregnant.
have yet to be successfully used with frozen ova and sperm in embryo banks.
have never been used by a couple who could have become pregnant naturally.
can ensure that couples with X-linked diseases have a daughter.
Gene therapy corrects genetic abnormalities by
transplanting healthy bone marrow to create a normal functioning immune system.
performing surgery to repair defect during the fetal period.
delivering DNA carrying a functional gene to the cells.
administering drugs directly to the DNA that modify protein production.
Grandparents are an example of __________ that can promote children's development.
a unidirectional influence
a third party
Higher-SES parents emphasize the importance of __________ for their children, whereas lower-SES parents emphasize __________.
intellectual abilities; psychological traits
psychological traits; external characteristics
external characteristics; intellectual abilities
external characteristics; psychological traits
In both the United States and Canada, the poverty rate for single mothers with preschool children is nearly __________ percent.
Of all Western nations, __________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.
the United States
Among African Americans, living within an extended family tends to produce
higher levels of divorce and teenage pregnancy.
more people on welfare and fewer with jobs.
children with confused attachments to many adults.
improved child rearing and reduced stress.
Cross-cultural research shows that
collectivist cultures emphasize personal exploration and discovery.
the United States, Canada, and most Western European countries stress collectivism.
people stress group over individual goals in collectivist cultures.
collectivism tends to increase as cultures become more complex.
Public policies safeguarding children and youth have been __________ in the United States and (to some extent) Canada than in other Western industrialized nations.
slower to emerge
In the United States, Social Security and Medicare consume __________ of the federal budget for the elderly.
approximately 75 percent
over 95 percent
under 20 percent
Which of the following is TRUE regarding Social Security in the United States?
All American senior citizens, regardless of their employment histories, are eligible for Social Security.
The minimum income guaranteed to Americans age 65 and older is less than the poverty line.
Elderly Americans receive more generous governmental income supplement than those in most other Western nations.
The number of aging poor has increased substantially in recent decades.
Because the environments of most twin pairs do not represent the broad range of environments found in the general population, it is often difficult to
generalize heritability and concordance findings to the whole population.
run studies other than kinship studies for this reason.
generate concordance rates.
determine heritability estimates.
tend to overestimate the importance of the environment.
cannot be used to study complex traits, such as intelligence and personality.
are likely to exaggerate the role of heredity.
often are higher in lower-SES compared to higher-SES families.
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