Chapter 23: The Beginning of Time
 
Conceptual Quiz
 

1 .       How do we determine the conditions that existed in the very early universe? [Hint]



2 .       Why can't current theories describe what happened during the Planck era? [Hint]



3 .       When we say that the electroweak and strong forces "freeze out" at 10--35 seconds after the Big Bang, we mean that ______. [Hint]



4 .       According to the Big Bang theory, how many forces -- and which ones --- operated in the universe during the GUT era? [Hint]



5 .       Laboratory experiments conducted with particle accelerators confirm predictions made by the theory that unifies ______. [Hint]



6 .       What was the significance of the end of the era of nucleosynthesis, when the universe was about 3 minutes old? [Hint]



7 .       According to the Big Bang theory, why do we live in a universe that is made of matter rather than antimatter? [Hint]



8 .       Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the cosmic microwave background? [Hint]



9 .       In principle, if we could see all the way to the cosmological horizon we could see the Big Bang taking place. However, our view is blocked for times prior to about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Why? [Hint]



10 .       If astronomers had discovered that the cosmic microwave background was precisely the same everywhere, rather than having very slight variations in temperature, then we would have no way to account for: [Hint]



11 .       In stars, helium can sometimes be fused into carbon and heavier elements (in their final stages of life). Why didn't the same fusion processes produce carbon and heavier elements in the early universe? [Hint]



12 .       How does the idea of inflation account for the existence of the "seeds" of density from which galaxies and other large structures formed? [Hint]



13 .       Which of the following is NOT consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background by the WMAP satellite? [Hint]



14 .       Based on the results from the WMAP satellite, the overall composition of the energy of the universe is ______. [Hint]



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