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Sample MLA works-cited entries: Electronic sources


General citation information for periodicals

Electronic sources include those available on CD-ROM and those available online, either through your library's Web site or directly over the Internet. Like citations of print sources, citations of electronic sources require available information such as author, title, and date of publication. CD-ROMs require additional information such as vendor name (see models 31 and 32). Online sources require even more additional information, as shown in the sample below.

1. Author. Use the author's full name: last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name and any middle name or initial. If you don't see the author's name at the top of the source, look at the end of the document page. If no author is listed, begin with the title.

2. Title. Use quotation marks around the title of a periodical article, a part of a book, or an individual document or page on a site. Use underlining for the title of an entire site.

3. Publication information for the print version, if any. Many online sources also appear in print, though often in a different format and sometimes with different content. If the source gives information about a print version, provide it after the source title, following an appropriate model from the previous pages. The source here, a selection from an anthology, follows model 18: anthology title, editors' names, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, and inclusive page numbers for the selection.

4. Publication information for the online version.

a. Title of the site, underlined.

b. Date of electronic publication or last update. This date is important even if the source has a print version.

c. Name of the organization or institution sponsoring the site.

If the site has an editor or a version number, add that information immediately after the site title.

5. Date of your access. Since online sources can and often do change, providing the date you last consulted the source tells readers which version you consulted. Do not add a period or other punctuation between the access date and the electronic address.

6. Electronic address, or URL, enclosed in angle brackets (< >). Usually you'll find the URL in the Location or Address field near the top of your browser screen. To ensure that you get the complete and accurate URL, use Copy and Paste to copy it from the browser into a word-processing file or an e-mail to yourself. In your list of works cited, break a URL only after a slash. Do not hyphenate.

Note: A URL does not always provide a usable route to a source. The URL may be too long to copy accurately or conveniently, it may be unique to a particular search, or it may be unique to a particular library. In such a case, you may provide the URL of the site's search page, from which the reader can locate your source by author or title, or you may provide the URL of the site's home page along with any keywords or sequence of links you used to reach the source. For a subscription service, you may give just the home page URL or omit the URL; see models 33 and 34.

Try to locate all the information required in the following models. However, if you search for and still cannot find some information, then give what you can find.

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31. A source on a periodical CD-ROM database

Databases on CD-ROM are issued periodically—for instance, every six months or every year. The journals, newspapers, and other publications included in such a database are generally available in print as well, so your works-cited entry should give the information for both formats: 1. Information for the print version, following models on models 22–30. Title of the CD-ROM, underlined. 3. Medium, "CD-ROM," without quotation marks or underlining. 4. Name of the vendor (or distributor) of the CD-ROM. 5. Date of electronic publication.

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32. A source on a nonperiodical CD-ROM

If you cite a single-issue CD-ROM, use this format: [1] Author. [2] Title. Underline titles of books or similarly long works. Use quotation marks for short works such as stories or chapters in books. [3] Title of the entire CD-ROM, if any, underlined. [4] Medium, "CD-ROM," without quotation marks or underlining. [5] CD-ROM's place of publication, publisher, and date of publication.

If the work you cite or the entire disk has a version or edition number, add it at the appropriate place, as shown in the model below:

This model also shows citation of a part of a work (in quotation marks) with no author.

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33. A work from an online service to which your library subscribes

Your library subscribes to a number of online services—such as EBSCOhost, ProQuest, and LexisNexis––that often provide access to the full text of articles in periodicals, reference works, and other sources. These services sometimes provide source URLs that you can use to direct your readers to the sources (see below). More often, however, the services provide URLs that readers can't follow because they are too long (extending even beyond the browser's Location or Address field), are temporary (generated for each search), or are unique to the subscribing library. In this case follow the model above, if possible, giving the following information: [1] Author and title. [2] Information for print publication of the source, if any, following the appropriate model for a book or article. [3] Name of the database, underlined. (The database is the specific index or other reference you consulted.) [4] Name of the service, not underlined. [5] Names of the subscribing institution and library. (Add city and state if necessary to identify the library location.) [6] Date of your access. [7] URL of the service's home page, if known, so that readers can locate information about the service. If you can't find this URL, you may end the entry with the date of your access.

If the service provides a usable URL for a source, follow one of models 38-46. For the Netchaeva example above (a journal article), you would use model 40.

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34. A work from an online service to which you subscribe

If you find a source through America Online, MSN, or another personal online service, you may not see a usable URL or any URL for the source. In that case, provide the path you used to get to the source, as in the example above: [1] Title of source, in quotation marks, and title of larger work, underlined. [2] Name of the service, neither underlined nor quoted. [3] Date of your access, followed by a period. [4] "Path:" (without quotation marks) and the sequence of topics required to reach the source, with the topics separated by semicolons.

If you used a keyword instead of a path to reach the source, give that information instead: Keyword: Chinese dragon kings.

If the online service provides a usable URL for the source, use one models 38-46. For the source shown (an article in an encyclopedia), you would use model 45 for an information database.

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35. An entire online site (scholarly project, professional site, personal site, etc.)

A scholarly project or professional site:

When citing an academic site, include the following: [1] Title of the site, underlined. [2] Name of any editor(s) of the site, preceded by "Ed." [3] Date of publication or most recent update. [4] Name of any organization or institution that sponsors the site. [5] Date of your access. [6] URL.

A personal site:

Cite a personal site with this information: [1] Author's name, if any. [2] Title, if any, underlined. If the site has no title, describe it with a label such as Home page, without quotation marks or underlining. [3] Date of last revision. [4] Date of your access. [5] URL.

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36. A short work from an online site

For a poem, an article, or another short work appearing on a site, give the following: [1] Author's name. [2] Title of the short work, in quotation marks. [3] Title, editor, and publication information for the entire site, as in model 35 above. [4] Date of your access. [5] URL for the short work.

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37. The home page for a course

For the home page of a course, provide this information: [1] Instructor's name. [2] Course title, without quotation marks or underlining. [3] The description Course home page, without quotation marks or underlining. [4] Inclusive dates of the course. [5] Names of the department and the school, separated by a comma. [6] Date of your access. [7] URL for the home page.

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38. An online book

An entire book:

For a book published online, give the following information: [1] Author and title. [2] Name of any editor or translator. [3] Any publication information for the original print version of the book, following one of models 1-17. [4] Title of the site, underlined. [5] Date of electronic publication. [6] Name of any sponsoring organization or institution. [7] Date of your access. [8] URL for the book. If the site has an editor, add the name after the site's title (see model 35).

A part of a book:

For a part of a book published online, provide this information: [1] Author of the part. [2] Title of the part, in quotation marks. (Do not use quotation marks for Introduction, Foreword, or another standard part. See model 20.) [3] Title of the book (underlined), editor of the book (if any), and publication information for the print version of the book. [4] Title of the site (underlined) and editor of the site (if any). [5] Date of electronic publication. [6] Date of your access. [7] URL for the part of the book. If the site as a whole has a sponsoring organization, give the name between the date of electronic publication and the date of your access (see model 38).

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39. An online government publication

See model 52 of government publication in print. Provide the same information for online publications, and add facts of electronic publication. The model above includes the following: [1] Names of government, department, and agency. [2] Title of publication, underlined. [3] Date of publication. [4] Date of your access. [5] URL.

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40. An article in an online journal

Give the following information for an online scholarly article that you reach directly: [1] Author, article title, journal title, volume and any issue numbers, and publication date, as in model 22 or 23 on page 719. [2] Page numbers in the journal or total number of pages, paragraphs, or sections, if any of these is given. Omit reference numbers if none are supplied. [3] Date of your access. [4] URL for the article.

For a journal article reached through a subscription service, see model 33.

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41. An online abstract

Treat an online abstract like an online journal article (model 40), but add "Abstract" (without quotation marks or underlining) between the publication information and the date of your access.

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42. An article in an online newspaper or on a newswire

Provide the following information for an online newspaper article that you reach directly: [1] Author, article title, newspaper title, and publication date as in model 26. Give section, page, or paragraph numbers if the newspaper does. [2] Date of your access. [3] URL for the article.

Treat a newswire article similarly, substituting the title of the online wire service for the newspaper title (this article has no named author):

See model 33 when citing a newspaper or newswire article that you reached through a subscription service.

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43. An article in an online magazine

Provide the following information for an online magazine article that you reach directly: [1] Author's name, article title, magazine title, and publication date, as in model 24 or 25 on page 719. [2] Any page, paragraph, or other reference numbers. [3] Date of your access. [4] URL for the article.

See model 33 when citing a magazine article that you reached through a subscription service.

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44. An online review

Cite an online review as follows: [1] Author, any review title, "Rev. of" and the title of the reviewed book, author or editor of the reviewed book, and publication information—all as in model 29 . [2] Date of your access. [3] URL for the review. See model 33 when citing a review that you reached through a subscription service.

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45. An article in an online information database

For an article in an information database, such as an encyclopedia, provide the following: 1 Author's name, if any is given. 2 Title of the article, in quotation marks. 3 Title of the database, underlined. 4 Version number, if any is given. 5 Date of electronic publication. 6 Name of sponsoring organization or publisher. 7 Date of your access. 8 URL for the article.

See models 33 and 34 when citing an information database that you reached through a library or personal subscription service.

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46. An online graphic, video, or audio source

In general, you can base citations of online visual or audio sources on models 55-58 and 63, adding information for the online source, particularly site title, date of your access, and URL. The following examples show a range of possibilities:

A work of art:

A map or other illustration:

A television or radio program:

A sound recording or clip:

A film or film clip:

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47. Electronic mail

For e-mail, give the following: [1] Writer's name. [2] Title, if any, from the e-mail's subject heading, in quotation marks. [3] Description of the transmission, including to whom it was sent. [4] Date of posting.

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48. A posting to an e-mail discussion list

Whenever possible, cite an archived version of a posting to an e-mail discussion list so that readers can find it without difficulty. Give this information for the posting: [1] Author's name. [2] Title, if any, from the e-mail's subject heading, in quotation marks. [3] Online posting, without quotation marks or underlining. [4] Date of posting. [5] Name of the discussion list, without quotation marks or underlining. [6] Date of your access. [7] URL, if known, or e-mail address for the moderator or supervisor of the list.

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49. A posting to a newsgroup or Web forum

A newsgroup:

For a posting to a newsgroup, give the following: [1] Author's name. [2] Title from the subject heading, in quotation marks. [3] Online posting, without quotation marks or underlining. [4] Date of posting. [5] Date of your access. [6] Group's name preceded by news:—both enclosed in angle brackets.

A Web forum:

For a posting to a Web forum, provide this information: [1] Author's name. [2] Title, if any, in quotation marks. [3] Online posting, without quotation marks or underlining. [4] Date of posting. [5] Name of the forum, without quotation marks or underlining. [6] Date of your access. [7] URL.

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50. A synchronous communication

Whenever possible, cite an archived version of a synchronous communication so that readers can find it without difficulty. Provide this information: [1] Speaker's name. [2] Description of the event, without quotation marks or underlining. [3] Date of the event. [4] Forum, without quotation marks or underlining. [5] Date of your access. [6] URL.

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51. Computer software

For software, provide the following: [1] Title, underlined. [2] Version number. [3] Publication information, including place of publication, publisher, and date. If the software has a listed author, give his or her name first in the entry. If you consulted or obtained the software online, replace the publication information with the date of your access and the URL, as in previous examples.

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