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Key Concepts Quiz

This activity contains 26 questions.

Question 1
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According to the latest theories of evolutionary history, which organisms are the most closely related?
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Question 2
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Based on your review of Table 15.1, The Geologic Record, what types of markers are used to separate eras?
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Question 3
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Creationists sometimes disparage the experiments of Miller and Urey (apparatus illustrated below), pointing out that they did not make all of the amino acids we see today in any given run of the experiment. This criticism misses the point of the Miller-Urey experiments, as they intended to demonstrate _____.
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Question 4
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Evidence indicates that the first life arose _____, the first animals arose _____, and the first large organisms on land arose _____.
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Question 5
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Homeotic genes are responsible for _____.
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Question 6
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If you could travel back in time to examine some of the earliest life-forms, what would you expect to find? Assume you will bring equipment for biochemical analysis!
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Question 7
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Molecular clocks are _____.
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Question 8
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Protobionts are _____.
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Question 9
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Species A, B, and C are in the same phylum. Species A and species B are in the same order. Species C is in a different order. From this information you can conclude with certainty that _____.
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Question 10
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Stromatolite fossils that formed 3.5 billion years ago indicate that _____.
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Question 11
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The body shapes of porpoises and sharks are similar in appearance. Yet recent ancestors to the porpoise were four-limbed terrestrial mammals. Therefore, the streamlined shapes of these two animals are an example of _____.
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Question 12
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The first polymers were formed through dehydration synthesis. According to the experimental evidence, how did this process work?
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Question 13
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What do earthquakes, volcanoes, and the formation of mountain ranges have in common?
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Question 14
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What is an exaptation?
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Question 15
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When analyzing relationships among a particular group of taxa, how does a biologist decide which trees are the most parsimonious?
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Question 16
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Which best summarizes the idea of adaptive evolution?
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Question 17
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Which comparison accurately states why phylogenetic trees based on molecular data can be more informative than those based on morphology?
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Question 18
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Which correctly orders the likely steps in the origin of life from nonlife early in Earth's history, from earliest to most recent?
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Question 19
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Which of the following organisms make up the monophyletic clade derived from the ancestor at node 3 in the figure shown below?

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Question 20
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Which option accurately describes continental drift?
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Question 21
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Which pair of organisms, if found together in the same well-defined fossil layer, would cause a major rethinking of our current understanding of the fossil record?
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Question 22
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Why did mammals experience an increase in diversity shortly after the Cretaceous?
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Question 23
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Why does Australia have a great diversity of marsupials (pouched mammals) while North America has a great diversity of placental mammals? Refer to the figure below as you answer.

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Question 24
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Why is rRNA such a useful tool in molecular systematics?
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Question 25
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You are studying a group of closely related rodent species that are native to central portions of South America and Africa. Both the rodents and their fossils are entirely absent from other continents. These rodents slowly disperse over land, but do not cross areas of salt water. With reference to the figure below, when did this group probably originate?

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Question 26
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You have found a fossil of a soft-bodied animal. You suspect it is from the late Proterozoic (about 600 million years old). Which isotope would be the best choice to approximate the actual age of the fossil?
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