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Key Concepts Quiz



This activity contains 33 questions.

Question 1
1
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The scientist Jean Baptiste Lamarck proposed that if an individual acquired a particular characteristic—such as strength from lifting weights—this characteristic would be inherited by the organism's offspring. This same idea is also part of a more ancient idea, the idea of _____.
 
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Question 2
2
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Mendel's view of the mechanism of heredity was radically different from the prevailing view of the time because he saw heredity working through _____.
 
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Question 3
3
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Two mice are crossed. Matings are carried out between the offspring of these mice to produce "grandchildren" of the original mated pair. In the standard terminology of genetics, the "grandchildren" are the _____.
 
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Question 4
4
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True-breeding individuals differing in a single character, say a pea plant bearing green seeds and another bearing yellow seeds, are crossed. Assuming that this trait is determined by a single gene that is present in two forms (yellow and green, in this case), how can you tell which allele is dominant and which is recessive?
 
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Question 5
5
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Mendel was a meticulous experimentalist. One set of crosses he performed to test his idea that a pair of hereditary determinants segregated into gametes was to allow self-fertilization of F2 individuals to produce F3 offspring. What proportion of the purple-flowered F2 individuals did Mendel predict to be true-breeding?
 
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Question 6
6
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An insect that has the genotype EeGGcc will have the same phenotype as an insect with the genotype _____.
 
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Question 7
7
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In an individual of genotype Aa, where are the A and a alleles physically located?
 
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Question 8
8
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Mendel's principle of independent assortment applies to the _____.
 
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Question 9
9
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Assume that in cattle a spotted coat is dominant to an even coat, short horns are dominant to long horns, and the traits for coat type and horn length assort independently. In a cross between cattle that are each heterozygous for both traits, what proportion of their offspring are expected to have long horns?
 
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Question 10
10
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You cross two fruit trees. One tree produces lemons with spiky leaves, the other produces limes with smooth leaves. Your F1 generation produces lemons with smooth leaves and spiky leaves. What are the genotypes of the parents? L = lemons; l = limes; S = smooth leaf; s = spiky leaf.
 
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Question 11
11
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Imagine that long fins in zebrafish is a dominant trait. A breeder wants to set up a breeding program beginning with homozygous dominant long-finned fish. If she obtains a handful of the rare long-finned fish, how can she tell which if any of these are homozygous for the trait?
 
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Question 12
12
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In Labrador dogs, black coat is dominant to chocolate, normal vision is dominant to progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and normal hip joint is dominant to hip dysplasia. All these genes assort independently. Two dogs that are heterozygous for alleles of all three genes are crossed. Using rules of probability (not a Punnett square), what is the chance that the first pup born to these dogs will be chocolate, have normal vision, and have normal hip joints?
 
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Question 13
13
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Two normal parents have three normal children: one son and two daughters. Their son and one of their daughters marry and also have normal children. Their second daughter, Mary, marries a man with a rare, recessive blood disorder. They have two children, and both children develop the blood disorder. What were the genotypes of Mary's parents?
 
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Question 14
14
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Human genetic disorders _____.
 
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Question 15
15
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Why are lethal dominant alleles so much more rare than lethal recessive alleles?
 
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Question 16
16
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Imagine you're counseling a couple who have undergone carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease. The man is a carrier, and the woman does not carry the Tay-Sachs allele. How should you advise them?
 
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Question 17
17
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A large and increasing number of genetic tests are available to prospective parents and children. Even as these testing methods become more and more sophisticated, what is one thing technology will never solve?
 
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Question 18
18
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Akin to urban legends, there are curious genetics legends—things like eye color being determined by one gene, with a brown eye allele being completely dominant to blue. The problem comes when simple myth meets the complex reality of how eye color and many other traits are transmitted. Why is the inheritance of so many traits difficult to explain using only Mendel's view of genetics?
 
End of Question 18


Question 19
19
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Hypercholesterolemia is a disorder in which blood cholesterol levels are elevated. The H allele is incompletely dominant to the h allele, with hh homozygotes having extremely high levels of blood cholesterol. A husband and wife are both Hh heterozygotes. What is the chance that their first child will have normal levels of blood cholesterol?
 
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Question 20
20
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Snapdragons show incomplete dominance in their flowers. A pink snapdragon is crossed with a red snapdragon. What is true about the offspring?
 
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Question 21
21
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There are over 100 alleles known for the gene associated with cystic fibrosis. With current technology, it is possible to determine exactly which allele or alleles are carried by a person. What is the maximum number of different alleles that any person can carry?
 
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Question 22
22
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In lentils, the C gene has two different alleles. CSCS homozygotes have spotted seeds, CDCD homozygotes have dotted seeds, and CSCD heterozygotes have seeds with both spots and dots. This indicates that _____.
 
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Question 23
23
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Two individuals decide to have children. The expected blood group genotypes are 50% of blood type A, and 25% each of blood types AB and B. What genotypes are the parents? .
 
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Question 24
24
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If the gene for seed color that Mendel studied exhibited pleiotropy, how might a green pea be different from a yellow pea?
 
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Question 25
25
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In breeding pure-breeding large and small strains of mice, you cross individuals of each strain and note that their offspring are intermediate in size. Two models (explanations) to account for this result are (1) that body size in these strains is due to one gene with alleles that show incomplete dominance and (2) that body size is a polygenic trait. How could you distinguish between these models?
 
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Question 26
26
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Our understanding of the role played by genes in many human characteristics—for example, body size, performance on IQ tests, and personality traits—is advancing rapidly. In this new genetic era, the role of the environment _____.
 
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Question 27
27
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Which of the following line or lines of evidence support the chromosome theory of inheritance?
 
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Question 28
28
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In corn, blue kernels are produced by a dominant allele of a coloration gene, and white kernels are produced in individuals homozygous for a recessive allele of the same coloration gene. Another gene has two alleles for shape, with smooth kernels being dominant to wrinkled. A plant heterozygous for both genes is testcrossed (crossed to a homozygous recessive white, wrinkled strain). The testcross offspring consist of the following types: 1,447 blue smooth; 1,436 white wrinkled; 150 blue wrinkled; 145 yellow smooth. Explain the inheritance of the coloration and shape traits.
 
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Question 29
29
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In Morgan's testcross of a gray-bodied, long-winged heterozygous female Drosophila with a homozygous recessive black-bodied, vestigial-winged male, the following offspring were obtained: 965 gray body, long wing; 944 black body, vestigial wing; 206 gray body, vestigial wing; 185 black body, long wing. Focusing only on the recombinant classes (gray body, vestigial wing and black body, long wing), the numbers of offspring of each type are similar (206 and 185). What accounts for the similar number of offspring of each recombinant phenotype?
 
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Question 30
30
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Imagine that a mutant strain of Drosophila undergoes crossing over at half the normal rate. How would a genetic map prepared for this mutant differ from a genetic map prepared for a normal (wild type) fly?
 
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Question 31
31
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The existence of rare XY individuals who are phenotypically normal women was instrumental in learning about human sex determination. Maleness is determined by the SRY gene found on the Y chromosome. How is it possible to be an XY woman?
 
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Question 32
32
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Vitamin D–resistant rickets is an X-linked dominant bone disorder. A man with this form of rickets marries a normal woman. What proportion of the couple's daughters is expected to have vitamin D–resistant rickets?
 
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Question 33
33
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A woman who is a carrier of hemophilia marries a man affected with hemophilia. What percentage of their sons and daughters are expected to have hemophilia?
 
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