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Key Concepts Quiz


This activity contains 23 questions.

Question 1
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The eukaryotic cell has multiple membrane-enclosed compartments. This evolutionary innovation provides what advantage to the cell?
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Question 2
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Frequently, transplanted organs are rejected by the recipient's body. How is this reaction is related to plasma membranes?
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Question 3
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Overall, membranes seem to have a great deal in common, but on closer inspection it is revealed that membranes of different cells have unique properties. What is the primary component of membranes that gives membranes cell-specific properties?
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Question 4
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In an oil-based, nonpolar environment phospholipds would arrange themselves so that they _____.
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Question 5
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What controls the direction of a molecule, such as oxygen, involved in passive transport?
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Question 6
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Osmosis is often viewed incorrectly as a process driven directly by differences in solute concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. What really drives osmosis?
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Question 7
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Utah's Great Salt Lake has an average salinity seven times higher than that of the oceans. Very few multicellular organisms live in this harsh environment. An example is the brine shrimp, which must devote a large portion of its metabolic energy to osmoregulation. These brine shrimp must _____.
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Question 8
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When placed in a hypotonic environment, where the solute concentration is below that of the cell, a houseplant will _____.
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Question 9
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You're on the pilot episode of a new reality show called "The Transport Factor." The host hands you three different amino acids, four different sugars, and two different ions. Then the host shouts, "How many different proteins does the cell need to move these molecules across the plasma membrane using facilitated transport?" Quickly, you correctly respond: _____.
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Question 10
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Which of the following is an accurate comparison of active transport and facilitated diffusion?
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Question 11
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Macrophages are white blood cells that roam the body searching for invading microbes. Inside macrophage vacuoles these invaders are destroyed. How do the microbes get inside the macrophages?
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Question 12
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New drugs are being developed to lower levels of circulating cholesterol. A successful drug would be one that _____.
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Question 13
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Cells store energy that they use for work in the _____.
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Question 14
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Light is _____ energy, which is converted by plants into molecules, which possess _____ energy.
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Question 15
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What happens to the chemical energy that is extracted from molecules by cellular activities but that is not used for cellular work?
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Question 16
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In plant cells, carbon dioxide and water are joined to form carbohydrates. Plant cells can also break down carbohydrates such as glucose, releasing carbon dioxide, water, and energy. No one has ever observed such reactions between water and carbon dioxide outside of living cells. What allows simple molecules to assemble into more complex molecules, and also disassemble, in cells but not in other, nonbiological environments?
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Question 17
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In a theoretical world where all things are possible, how could you increase the amount of energy that could be stored in a molecule of ATP?
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Question 18
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Table sugar, or sucrose, is quite stable, and left on its own at room or even human body temperature, breakdown occurs very slowly. The breakdown of sucrose into the simple sugars fructose and glucose is an exergonic reaction. Sucrase, an enzyme, can increase the reaction rate at least one-million-fold. How does the net amount of energy released during the breakdown of sucrose compare between a spontaneous reaction and one catalyzed by sucrase?
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Question 19
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A pharmaceutical company wishes to focus on an enzyme to develop new medications. What type of study would be of the greatest benefit?
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Question 20
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Which statement regarding enzyme function is true?
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Question 21
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The synthesis of an amino acid follows this pathway: precursor A → intermediate B → amino acid C. Each reaction is catalyzed by a different enzyme. This metabolic pathway is controlled by feedback inhibition with amino acid C inhibiting the conversion of precursor A to intermediate B. Amino acid C acts as a _____ of the first enzyme in the pathway.
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Question 22
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Antibiotics—for example, penicillin—cannot be used to treat viral infections, such as the common cold. Why?
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Question 23
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Azidothymidine (AZT) is an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV. It shares a structural similarity to a nucleotide. What might be the mode of action for this drug?
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